MySQL

MySQL is a fast, stable and true multi-user, multi-threaded SQL database server.

Installation

sudo apt install mysql-server

Secure set-up

mysql_secure_installation

Usage

mysql [OPTIONS] [database]

Flags

Usage: mysql [OPTIONS] [database]
  -?, --help          Display this help and exit.
  -I, --help          Synonym for -?
  --auto-rehash       Enable automatic rehashing. One doesn't need to use
                      'rehash' to get table and field completion, but startup
                      and reconnecting may take a longer time. Disable with
                      --disable-auto-rehash.
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-auto-rehash to disable.)
  -A, --no-auto-rehash
                      No automatic rehashing. One has to use 'rehash' to get
                      table and field completion. This gives a quicker start of
                      mysql and disables rehashing on reconnect.
  --auto-vertical-output
                      Automatically switch to vertical output mode if the
                      result is wider than the terminal width.
  -B, --batch         Don't use history file. Disable interactive behavior.
                      (Enables --silent.)
  --bind-address=name IP address to bind to.
  --binary-as-hex     Print binary data as hex
  --character-sets-dir=name
                      Directory for character set files.
  --column-type-info  Display column type information.
  -c, --comments      Preserve comments. Send comments to the server. The
                      default is --skip-comments (discard comments), enable
                      with --comments.
  -C, --compress      Use compression in server/client protocol.
  -#, --debug[=#]     This is a non-debug version. Catch this and exit.
  --debug-check       This is a non-debug version. Catch this and exit.
  -T, --debug-info    This is a non-debug version. Catch this and exit.
  -D, --database=name Database to use.
  --default-character-set=name
                      Set the default character set.
  --delimiter=name    Delimiter to be used.
  --enable-cleartext-plugin
                      Enable/disable the clear text authentication plugin.
  -e, --execute=name  Execute command and quit. (Disables --force and history
                      file.)
  -E, --vertical      Print the output of a query (rows) vertically.
  -f, --force         Continue even if we get an SQL error.
  --histignore=name   A colon-separated list of patterns to keep statements
                      from getting logged into syslog and mysql history.
  -G, --named-commands
                      Enable named commands. Named commands mean this program's
                      internal commands; see mysql> help . When enabled, the
                      named commands can be used from any line of the query,
                      otherwise only from the first line, before an enter.
                      Disable with --disable-named-commands. This option is
                      disabled by default.
  -i, --ignore-spaces Ignore space after function names.
  --init-command=name SQL Command to execute when connecting to MySQL server.
                      Will automatically be re-executed when reconnecting.
  --local-infile      Enable/disable LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE.
  -b, --no-beep       Turn off beep on error.
  -h, --host=name     Connect to host.
  -H, --html          Produce HTML output.
  -X, --xml           Produce XML output.
  --line-numbers      Write line numbers for errors.
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-line-numbers to disable.)
  -L, --skip-line-numbers
                      Don't write line number for errors.
  -n, --unbuffered    Flush buffer after each query.
  --column-names      Write column names in results.
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-column-names to disable.)
  -N, --skip-column-names
                      Don't write column names in results.
  --sigint-ignore     Ignore SIGINT (CTRL-C).
  -o, --one-database  Ignore statements except those that occur while the
                      default database is the one named at the command line.
  --pager[=name]      Pager to use to display results. If you don't supply an
                      option, the default pager is taken from your ENV variable
                      PAGER. Valid pagers are less, more, cat [> filename],
                      etc. See interactive help (\h) also. This option does not
                      work in batch mode. Disable with --disable-pager. This
                      option is disabled by default.
  -p, --password[=name]
                      Password to use when connecting to server. If password is
                      not given it's asked from the tty.
  -P, --port=#        Port number to use for connection or 0 for default to, in
                      order of preference, my.cnf, $MYSQL_TCP_PORT,
                      /etc/services, built-in default (3306).
  --prompt=name       Set the mysql prompt to this value.
  --protocol=name     The protocol to use for connection (tcp, socket, pipe,
                      memory).
  -q, --quick         Don't cache result, print it row by row. This may slow
                      down the server if the output is suspended. Doesn't use
                      history file.
  -r, --raw           Write fields without conversion. Used with --batch.
  --reconnect         Reconnect if the connection is lost. Disable with
                      --disable-reconnect. This option is enabled by default.
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-reconnect to disable.)
  -s, --silent        Be more silent. Print results with a tab as separator,
                      each row on new line.
  -S, --socket=name   The socket file to use for connection.
  --ssl-mode=name     SSL connection mode.
  --ssl               Deprecated. Use --ssl-mode instead.
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-ssl to disable.)
  --ssl-verify-server-cert
                      Deprecated. Use --ssl-mode=VERIFY_IDENTITY instead.
  --ssl-ca=name       CA file in PEM format.
  --ssl-capath=name   CA directory.
  --ssl-cert=name     X509 cert in PEM format.
  --ssl-cipher=name   SSL cipher to use.
  --ssl-key=name      X509 key in PEM format.
  --ssl-crl=name      Certificate revocation list.
  --ssl-crlpath=name  Certificate revocation list path.
  --tls-version=name  TLS version to use, permitted values are: TLSv1, TLSv1.1,
                      TLSv1.2
  --server-public-key-path=name
                      File path to the server public RSA key in PEM format.
  --get-server-public-key
                      Get server public key
  -t, --table         Output in table format.
  --tee=name          Append everything into outfile. See interactive help (\h)
                      also. Does not work in batch mode. Disable with
                      --disable-tee. This option is disabled by default.
  -u, --user=name     User for login if not current user.
  -U, --safe-updates  Only allow UPDATE and DELETE that uses keys.
  -U, --i-am-a-dummy  Synonym for option --safe-updates, -U.
  -v, --verbose       Write more. (-v -v -v gives the table output format).
  -V, --version       Output version information and exit.
  -w, --wait          Wait and retry if connection is down.
  --connect-timeout=# Number of seconds before connection timeout.
  --max-allowed-packet=#
                      The maximum packet length to send to or receive from
                      server.
  --net-buffer-length=#
                      The buffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication.
  --select-limit=#    Automatic limit for SELECT when using --safe-updates.
  --max-join-size=#   Automatic limit for rows in a join when using
                      --safe-updates.
  --secure-auth       Refuse client connecting to server if it uses old
                      (pre-4.1.1) protocol. Deprecated. Always TRUE
  --server-arg=name   Send embedded server this as a parameter.
  --show-warnings     Show warnings after every statement.
  -j, --syslog        Log filtered interactive commands to syslog. Filtering of
                      commands depends on the patterns supplied via histignore
                      option besides the default patterns.
  --plugin-dir=name   Directory for client-side plugins.
  --default-auth=name Default authentication client-side plugin to use.
  --binary-mode       By default, ASCII '\0' is disallowed and '\r\n' is
                      translated to '\n'. This switch turns off both features,
                      and also turns off parsing of all clientcommands except
                      \C and DELIMITER, in non-interactive mode (for input
                      piped to mysql or loaded using the 'source' command).
                      This is necessary when processing output from mysqlbinlog
                      that may contain blobs.
  --connect-expired-password
                      Notify the server that this client is prepared to handle
                      expired password sandbox mode.

Default options are read from the following files in the given order:
/etc/my.cnf /etc/mysql/my.cnf ~/.my.cnf
The following groups are read: mysql client
The following options may be given as the first argument:
--print-defaults        Print the program argument list and exit.
--no-defaults           Don't read default options from any option file,
                        except for login file.
--defaults-file=#       Only read default options from the given file #.
--defaults-extra-file=# Read this file after the global files are read.
--defaults-group-suffix=#
                        Also read groups with concat(group, suffix)
--login-path=#          Read this path from the login file.

Examples

Login to MySQL

mysql -u <username> -p

Show databases

SHOW DATABASES;

Create database

CREATE DATABASE <database>;

Use specific database

USE <database>;

Show tables in database

SHOW TABLES;

Create user

CREATE USER '<USERNAME>'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '<PASSWORD>';

Edit user

ALTER USER '<username>'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '<new-password>';

Set privileges

GRANT ALL ON <DATABASE>.* TO '<USERNAME>'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '<PASSWORD>';

Import SQL-file

mysql -u <USRENAME> -p <DATABASE> < <sql-file>.sql

Export database to file

mysqldump -u <USERNAME> -p <DATABASE> > <sql-file-to-export-to>.sql

Describe contents of table

desc <table>;

List users in system database

SELECT User from mysql.user;

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